Archive for the ‘Training Tips’ Category

r-JUMP-ROPE-WORKOUTS-403xFBcreditBy A.C. Shilton for Men’s Journal

Forget any association you had with jump ropes and gym class. The jump rope is a powerful workout tool. It builds cardio fitness, balance, agility and bone strength. It’s also one of the best go-anywhere fitness accessories, fitting easily into even a crammed carry-on.

“It requires a lot of coordination and really works your cardiovascular system,” says Camille Leblanc-Bazinet, the women’s 2014 CrossFit Games winner. She likes to train with double unders, a common CrossFit move that requires you to jump explosively and spin the rope faster to pass it beneath your feet twice. This works your muscles harder and pushes your cardiovascular system towards its upper limit.

To get the most from your workout, make sure your rope is the right size. CrossFit HQ trainer Dave Lipson says that when you hold the rope under one foot, the handles should just reach your armpits. To maximize results, practice good form. “Hold your hands at 10 and 2 o’clock and at waist height. Revolve the rope from the wrists, not the shoulders,” says Lipson.

And if you’re shooting for double unders, we recommend buying a speed rope with bearings. Speed ropes start around $20 and spin faster than inexpensive licorice and beaded ropes.

Now here are seven jump rope workouts — most of which can be completed in a half hour or less — that will have you burning calories and building strength.

High-Speed Circuit
Fitness competitor, former ballerina and coach Dom Spain teaches outdoor bootcamp classes in Miami. She calls jump rope workouts the “no excuses” workout because, “if I have clients that say they don’t have time or don’t have the money for a gym membership, they can always do this.”

This workout is designed to give you just enough rest to keep pushing through all of the exercises, but not enough to let things get easy. It can be done in 30 minutes and requires only a jump rope.

  • Warm up by doing 30 seconds of jumping rope, 30 seconds of air squats, then a 1 minute plank hold. Repeat four times.
  • 1 minute of jumping and 30 seconds of push-ups.
  • 1 minute of backward jumping and 30 seconds of tricep bench dips.
  • 1 minute of side to side jumping (imagine your feet are bound together, and jump rope while hopping from side to side) and 30 seconds of lunges.
  • 1 minute of skipping rope (one foot lands as the other takes off) and 30 seconds of jumping squats.
  • 1 minute of single leg jumping (30 seconds on one leg, then switch), and 30 seconds of mountain climbers.
  • 1 minute of alternating high knee jumps (like the skipping rope move, but pull your knees up as high as you can), and 30 seconds of flutter kicks.

Take one minute of rest, then repeat the entire circuit. Cool down and stretch after two rounds.

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It’s 2016. Are you ready? Do you have a plan? Do you know what you are going to do to achieve your fitness goals in the New Year?

Physical fitness is one of the most popular New Year’s resolutions, inspiring many people to enthusiastically join a gym. But simply saying you’re going to start exercising, however, will not do the trick, as evidenced by the fact that so many abandon their efforts before January is even over.

If you’re tired of wanting to change certain behaviors, such as getting physically fit, but not being able to follow through, you’re not alone. Fortunately, there are some specific strategies you can follow for creating an effective fitness plan that you can stick with over the long haul. If you’re ready to finally achieve your goal of getting—and staying—fit and healthy, grab a pen or an electronic device so you can take a few notes as we go through these important points together.

1. ENJOYMENT

Write down five physical activities that you enjoy or could maybe envision enjoying, starting with the one you like the most.

2. PRACTICALITY

Make a short list of the fitness- or sports-related equipment available to you at home, work, gym or health club (if you belong to one) or in your neighborhood. Compare your list of resources with your list of enjoyable activities and connect potential matches. For example, if you own a bike, you enjoy biking and there is a biking trail in your neighborhood, that’s a great match. If you can’t find a connection between your two lists, think about what you would need to obtain to be able to proceed with activities you enjoy. For example, if you love swimming but don’t have immediate access to a pool, track down a local public or private pool you could use.

3. VISION

Identify three things that you would like to accomplish in terms of your physical fitness and write them down. This could include establishing a regular fitness routine, finishing a 1-mile walk or doing 5 push-ups. Perhaps you have health-related goals, such as lowering your blood pressure, cholesterol or blood sugar levels. Either way, be very specific as to the details of your goals, such as how much and by when you want to accomplish these things. Remember, your goals should make sense in terms of what activities you enjoy doing (list #1). If you don’t enjoy running, don’t set a goal of wanting to run a marathon because you probably won’t do it.

4. PLAN

All effective fitness plans must include activities to address the complete picture of physical fitness:

  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Muscular Strength/Endurance
  • Flexibility

To achieve the greatest health benefits, you have to address all three aspects of fitness. Don’t worry if this sounds daunting—the FITT formula can help. The following table includes established fitness industry guidelines for healthy adults who want to improve physical fitness. Feel free to modify each category according to your personal enjoyment, preferences and current level of physical fitness. If you’re new to exercise, you may have to start with fewer or shorter workouts and work up to a higher intensities, frequency or times.

FITT FORMULA

  Cardiorespiratory Muscular Flexibility
FREQUENCY 3–5 days per week 2–3 non-consecutive days per week 3 days per week (minimum)

5–7 days (ideal)

INTENSITY Target exercise zone Weight, sets and reps depending on current fitness status To the point of tension, NOT pain.
TIME 20–60 minutes Depends on number of sets and reps Hold stretches for 15–30 seconds, repeating each stretch 2–4 times
TYPE Examples: swimming, biking, indoor cycling, cardio kickboxing Examples:

calisthenics, free weights, resistance bands

(Note: Be sure to address all major muscle groups.)

Static stretching after workout

5. SCHEDULE

To adopt a long-term effective fitness plan, it is vital to make physical fitness a priority in your daily scheduling. If you leave it up to chance, it won’t happen. Depending on your personalized FITT formula, add each particular fitness component in your daily schedule, just as you would any other appointment, and be sure to block off enough time to accomplish the chosen activity. Be realistic; for example, don’t schedule a workout at 11 p.m. at night, when you know you will be tired. If you are currently not active at all, start with fewer days and shorter times, such as three days a week of 30 minutes of cardiorespiratory fitness and slowly build up your plan from there.

6. TOOLS

Research confirms that people are more successful with their personal fitness plans if they enlist the support of a workout partner or group, have access to music and record what they do (such as a free app or a traditional journal). Is there someone in your life who could be your workout buddy? Have you checked out some helpful fitness apps? Get set up with resources to track what you do on a daily basis. Make appointments with workout buddies and put them in your calendar.

7. PREPARATION

An important tip to remember: Setbacks are part of the process, but an effective fitness plan can help avoid many of them. What will you do when it rains and you planned to run outside? What will you do when your kid’s schedule changes and you can’t make it to your group fitness class at 5 p.m.? Plan ahead for obstacles and identify alternatives. Add these to your FITT formula by adding a row labeled “back-up plan.”

8. ACTION

Take action and follow through with the plan you set for yourself. Every day will be a new journey, but it is up to you to take action and follow through.

9. EVALUTION

It is vital to reevaluate your fitness plan on a regular basis and honestly reflect on the following questions:

  1. What did I do well?
  2. What did I do not so well?
  3. What are my barriers?
  4. What is not working that I need to change?
  5. How will I overcome my barriers?

Every successful exerciser has to plan, prioritize and take action each and every day. It is a fluid process that is extremely empowering, inspiring and enjoyable, IF you employ the strategies listed here to maximize effectiveness. Remember, start slowly and don’t get discouraged when you fail—simply move on and refocus on your detailed plan. And always keep in mind the many positive benefits of physical fitness, because it can truly change and save your life.

Dominique WakefieldDominique Wakefield ContributorDominique Wakefield is a passionate, energetic and innovative health and fitness expert, ACE Certified Personal Trainer, NWI Certified Wellness Practitioner, ACSM credentialed EIM-1, presenter and writer. Currently, she is Director for University Health and Wellness and Faculty for Public Health, Nutrition & Wellness at Andrews University in Berrien Springs, MI. In October 2011, Dominique Wakefield was awarded ‘Top 11 Personal Trainers to Watch in the U.S.’ by Life Fitness and the American Council on Exercise. In addition to teaching at universities, she has worked as a Fitness & Programs Manager, Personal Trainer, Group Fitness Instructor and Wellness Coach at fitness centers, in the clinical wellness setting and in the corporate wellness setting since 2001. Dominique is a PhD candidate in Health through the University of Bath, England. Her studies and research center on physical activity, motivation for exercise and behavior change strategies. Visit dominiquewakefield.com to learn more!

More Blogs by Dominique Wakefield »

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By K. Aleisha Fetters, 

Exercise machines are simple — too simple, in fact. According to metabolic training expert BJ Gaddour, C.S.C.S. owner of StreamFIT.com, “They’ve been dumbed down to the point that they just don’t do your body much good.” Besides parking you on your butt, most machines isolate a single muscle, meaning you’ll burn fewer calories and gain less muscle mass rep for rep.

Most importantly (at least as far as medical bills are concerned), exercise machines can lead to injury. Even with their adjustable seats and pegs, finding the proper position can be close to impossible — and even then the movements just aren’t natural. “Free weights and bodyweight exercises allow your body to move in a natural range of motion,” Gaddour says. “When you fix it, it results in a limited and improper movement pattern that can be dangerous.”

Here, Gaddour shares five exercise machines you should swear off — and all-star alternatives that will give you better, faster fitness gains.

1. The Machine: Lying Leg Press
Your legs are strong (after all, they carry your body around all day), so if you lie down with your legs above your head for a leg press, you have to load more than the equivalent of your bodyweight onto the machine to achieve significant resistance, Gaddour says. Problem is, all that weight goes straight to your lower back, which flexes under the pressure. The risk? A herniated disk. Plus, the move doesn’t even work any of the stabilization muscles in the hips, glutes, shoulders, or lower back. The result: All pain and barely any gain.

Try This Instead: Goblet Squats
Apart from working just about your entire lower body in a single move, this squat variation involves holding a dumbbell or kettlebell in front of your chest to keep your form in check and the weight off of your lower back. Sometimes, a lighter load delivers a better burn.

2. The Machine: Seated Leg Extension
Since the weight is placed so close to your ankles, the machine puts undue torque on the knee joint, which can wear down cartilage and cause knee pain, Gaddour says. Plus, the common gym contraption is built around a motion that has little real-life benefit.

Try This Instead: Step Ups
Besides working your quads far better than any machine, step ups also train your glutes, hamstrings, and calves. By calling up more muscles, your knees are actually strengthened, not worn down.

3. The Machine: Seated Chest Press
While sitting is less than useful, the bigger problem here is that the machine can cause lopsided muscles. How? If one arm is weaker, the stronger one can end up doing all the work — and getting all the benefit, Gaddour says. To make sure both sides of your chest are strengthened equally, you need to load them separately.

Try This Instead: Pushups
An oldie but a goodie, pushups equally engage both sides of your chest. If it didn’t, you’d fall right over onto your side. What’s more, they tap your core for support and balance. After all, hot bodies aren’t built on chests alone.

4. The Machine: Hip Abductor/Adductor
If it looks ridiculous, it probably is, Gaddour says. And squeezing your thighs together — or pushing them apart — over and over definitely counts. Besides actually working very few muscles, it also strains the spine and can make the IT band so tight it pulls your knee cap out of place — not a good look for anybody.

Try This Instead: Single-Leg Squat
When you’re not in the gym, your inner and outer thighs largely work to maintain stability. So they should do the same thing when you’re in the gym, right? Single leg exercises — like the single-leg bodyweight squat — require those muscles to brace your body and keep you upright, all while putting your quads, glutes, and hamstrings to good use.

5. The Machine: Loaded Standing Calf Raise
While the idea here is to lift weight with your calves, the machine’s setup — specifically the shoulder pads — means that all the weight presses down on your spine before it ever reaches your legs. If it doesn’t turn you into a hunchback, it’ll at least cause you some back pain.

Try This Instead: Bodyweight Standing Calf Raise
If regular standing calf raises don’t have the resistance you need, try standing on one foot during your next set. Besides doubling the weight each calf has to lift at a time, it also puts your legs’ smaller, stabilizing muscles to work.

More from DETAILS:

The Only 5 Exercises You’ll Ever Need

How To Get Rock Hard Abs Faster

Shirtless Nick Jonas Explains How He Got His New Body

The Hottest Vanity Muscles–And How To Get Them

 

rsLogoAnthony Darmiento
Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach
United States Olympic Committee

As the National Strength and Conditioning Association states in their position statement on youth resistance training, “Strength training youth athletes needs to be safe, effective and enjoyable. In order for strength training to be safe it’s more than the method of strength training, but rather how it is being implemented.”

For example, important factors such as proper form when lifting and moving are overlooked when a coach simply follows a plan on a written document or tries to implement a training program they once performed.  For this reason, Responsible Coaches seek help and guidance from qualified strength coaches to assist in the development of athletes of any level to ensure that strength training is performed in a proper and appropriate manner.  The risks of strength training are similar between youth and adults and strength training is only effective when it is done in a safe environment with proper supervision.

In order for strength training to be effective Responsible Coaches realize that strength training must complement sport training. For example, eliminating practice time to introduce or implement an effective strength program and developing basic movement skills are safe investments. The off-season and preseason are ideal times to implement a strength program. Responsible Coaches recognize athletes need to have the appropriate motor control to perform basic exercises such as a squat, lunge and pushup before progressing to loaded exercises. Although these movements and others may seem rudimentary and common most young athletes lack the ability to execute them with proper form.  Another reason for stressing the importance of such training is that these skills and movements transfer to many different sports and across all levels of sport.

In order for strength training to be enjoyable two very important factors must be considered: Athlete’s must understand and see benefits from the strength program while also training in a fun and enjoyable environment. Any athlete is more likely to continue training when they understand the benefits and see results. This highlights the importance of a sound and effective program. This is especially important considering it may take a few weeks of progressing before performance increases are seen or athletes begin to feel the positive effects of training. Until then it is important to keep training fun and enjoyable by mixing in games or challenges that keep athletes focused. For example, performing walking lunges on a row of printer paper without stepping off could be enjoyable and challenging for younger athletes.

On the other hand older athletes might enjoy keeping a log of their vertical jump height as each athlete attempts to beat their own personal records over time. Setting goals that are both attainable and challenging for the team or each individual is very important when trying to keep athletes motivated and driven. Thus coaches should be prepared with progressions and regressions for different exercises or activities based on ranging abilities of their athletes. If all this is kept in mind it shouldn’t be hard to keep things in enjoyable and fun while still performing strength training in a safe and controlled manner.

References:

Fagenbaum, A. D., Kraemer, W. J., Blimkie, C. J., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L. J., Nitka, M., et al. (2009). Youth Resistance Training: Updated Position Statement Paper From the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 60-79.


female athleteKate Carr
President and CEO, Safe Kids Worldwide
Posted: 08/05/2013 9:58 pm

Sixteen-year-old Anna didn’t hesitate when I asked her about her love of soccer. “It’s my life,” she said matter-of-factly, and her reputation backed it up. Through hard work, tenacity and dedication, Anna is one of the top high school soccer players in the Washington, D.C. area with realistic aspirations of a Division I scholarship.

That’s why it’s so sad that our conversation took place when she was lying on a sports rehab table so far from the game she loves. This is her third knee surgery, which is shocking but not as uncommon as you might think among female athletes. In fact, female athletes are three times more likely to have ACL injuries than male athletes.

There are plenty of theories for this discrepancy, ranging from physical differences to hormone levels. Either way, there are stretches and exercises all athletes can do to help prevent these injuries.

I was at the rehab facility to film a video with U.S. Women’s Soccer player Ali Krieger, who you might remember from her game-winning penalty kick in the quarterfinals of 2011 World Cup in Germany. Ali, who was recovering from an ACL (knee) surgery, helped demonstrate seven exercises female athletes can do to help prevent knee injuries.

It’s a must-see for all of the athletes in your life.

Safe Kids Worldwide and Johnson & Johnson are working together to reach parents, coaches and kids with tips that can prevent the more than 1.35 million ER visits that occur as a result of a sports injury. For more information, read our research report or visit www.safekids.org

For more on fitness and exercise, click here.

For more by Kate Carr, click here.

Français : Tractions

Français : Tractions (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 


Doctor of Physical Therapy,
PhD Candidate at the University of Southern California
May 05, 2013

Death bydeadlift!

Pungent terminology to some, but if you’re a CrossFitter, it’s pure humdrum. There have been endless articles and blogs that have advocated for or against CrossFit. Those for it wax eloquent on its perceived benefits, like improving physical strength, endurance, range of motion and even appearance. So, you’re saying when you combine a strict diet minimizing dairy products and simple carbohydrates and work out harder and with more intensity, it yields results? Shocker (and that, ladies and gentlemen, is sarcasm at its finest).

The drawbacks of CrossFit are not as apparent. Due to a lack of prospective data, there is no definitive information attributing CrossFit to injury; rather, there are simply anecdotal reports associating CrossFit with — amongst other things — shoulder, back and knee pain. However, the associations between injury potential with the particular lifts and exercises performed during a typical class are painstakingly clear. Fortunately, it can all be addressed through improved quality control, but unlike Drake, it starts from the top.

There are currently no guidelines by any nationally-recognized authority (e.g. NSCA, NATA, ACSM, NCSF) that one can use to inform themselves about CrossFit training methods. Furthermore, potentially due to the minimal qualification requirements, the coaches may not always have the skillset or knowledge base to promote (and/or individually tailor) form in order to prevent injury. This is compounded by the fact that there are inadequate guidelines to prepare novice CrossFitters and potentially insufficient individual attention due to large class sizes. As many CrossFit programs are predicated upon competition amongst the class members, performance (e.g., time and/or repetitions) also often supersedes health. In other words, if you want to be first in the WOD (workout of the day), you may have to push through pain, injury and/or fatigue. It may be the essence of competition, but with high-intensity exercise, injury is inevitable if not done with the proper form. Athletes (novice and experts alike) should thus be cognizant of choosing facilities that offer coaches who are accredited by nationally recognized authorities. With that said, here are just a few typical CrossFit exercises to be cautious of:

Deadlift

An effective lift that targets the hamstrings and back extensors. However, if fatigued, or during competition, mechanics can get sloppy, particularly characterized by the back rounding out and the bar moving too far from the body. This can result in excessive strain (and pain) to the hamstrings, as well as the back muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Having the back bent during the loading and unloading phase can potentially lead to a herniated disc. Focus on maintaining a neutral spine, all the while keeping the bar close to the body.

Power Clean

Similar to deadlifts, power cleans are an Olympic lift, yet the complex movement pattern appears to make it even harder to master. Ex-NFL strength and conditioning coach Dan Riley notes that “the inherent dangers unique to this movement can make it a potential hazard … It places the muscles, lower back, tendons and joints in a vulnerable position.” In fact, even with perfect form, the load from the power clean, particularly during the descent phase, may result in excessive forces to the knee joint. If form degrades and the back begins to arch, the body relies more on the hamstrings and back to eccentrically (muscle lengthening contraction) control the weight, potentially leading to excessive strain and injury to these structures. If performing the power clean, be sure to maintain a neutral spine, bend sufficiently at the knees, and progress very slowly until a good technique is mastered. This may help limit excessive force transmission through the body. It is also advised that those with pre-existing knee pain steer clear of this lift.

Kettlebell Swing

The force to propel the kettlebell is supposed to be derived from the hips. If the weight is too great, or one begins to fatigue, they often compensate by overstressing the upper body — neck and shoulders — during the ascent, and the back — just as in the power clean — during the descent. Furthermore, if the stance is too wide and the knees begin to fall inward, it can result in excessive load to the lateral knee joint. If the stance is too narrow, it will minimize the ability to open the hips, likely resulting in a variety of compensatory (and deleterious) movement patterns. Correct selection of stance width, and having the feet slightly externally rotated can help avoid these pitfalls.

Muscle Up

The ring muscle up is the quintessential CrossFit exercise, requiring flexibility and strength of the core and shoulders as well as mental strength and confidence to complete the task. Though it is a combination of a pull up and a dip, many individuals whom are able to perform both exercises seamlessly have great difficulty in transitioning between the two and thus completing a muscle-up. During the pull phase, one requires core strength to complete a kip pull up, else there will be compensation by the shoulders. During the push phase, the elbows have to stay tucked in close to the body, otherwise it places the shoulders in more of an open-packed position, leaving them — and the rotator cuff, in particular — vulnerable to injury. Make sure to master both ring-based pull ups and dips prior to progressing to a muscle up. It is advised that individuals with pre-existing shoulder injury or instability take particular caution.

Death by. An obvious exaggeration that in CrossFit terminology means to add a single repetition each successive minute until failure. However, the term, and this method of exercise, symbolizes the CrossFit mantra of forging elite fitness, seemingly by pushing yourself past your preconceived limit. Adherence to the CrossFit program and performance of its exercises undoubtedly generates results, but if done improperly, even though the chances of actual death may be low, the likelihood of injury appears high. I would thus be amiss to advise against CrossFit exercises and the associated diet, so rather, I take aim at the CrossFit structure that clearly fails in ensuring that their coaches place emphasis on long-term health and wellness, rather than simple performance metrics. Because frankly, it’s hard to be elite with a herniated disc.

youth-sportsby Rick Howard, MEd, CSCS,*D

Providing a safe and effective youth strength and conditioning program is only the foundation of their long-term athletic development.

The Path to Performance

All athletes have one thing in common – they either are, or were, youth. The youth strength and conditioning programs in which these athletes participate have long-term performance implications. So, whether you are a RSCC, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, sport scientist, or other allied strength and conditioning professional, here are three important youth strength and conditioning concepts:

  1. Develop physical literacy for youth by promoting a long-term approach to quality daily physical education and daily intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
  2. Promote positive mental and psychosocial development as well as physical development with a properly designed strength and conditioning program.
  3. The Youth Resistance Training: Updated Position Statement Paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association (2009) for guidelines on strength and conditioning programs that emphasize a long-term approach to developing strength and power.

A Model for ALL Youth

At the foundation of training youth is the philosophy that ALL children should be provided the opportunity to develop their physical, mental, and social skills. These physical, mental, and social skills must be considered simultaneously. Coaches must be aware of the nonlinear path of youth development and how this considerable variability of developmental stages has physical, mental, and social implications.

Training strategies for youth must be carefully planned based on the dynamic interrelationships of numerous variables such as number of sports being played throughout the year and during the same season, environment, ethnicity, self-efficacy, focus, etc. Strength coaches need to keep abreast of best practice and research-based program models for promoting the continuum of lifelong physical activity and sports participation for youth.

The Long-Term Athletic Development Model

The long-term athletic development (LTAD) model is a generic guide that can be used to plan the sport/activity specific plan. LTAD heightens coaches’ awareness that the focus should not be on early sport specialization but that a plan should be implemented to meet the individual needs of young athletes as they develop. LTAD is based predominantly on biological (physical) development and suggests training and competition strategies based on developmental and chronological age.

The LTAD-type program should contain developmentally-appropriate strength and conditioning as well as important elements of positive conditioning, active play, and unstructured play. Proper ratios of conditioning-to-practice and practice-to-competition are suggested and have been customized by national governing bodies to meet the needs of their sport (youth hockey and soccer, for example). Youth should participate in a wide variety of sports and activities that develop their physical, mental, and psychosocial skills– early sport specialization is discouraged.

Looking at the Individual Needs of Youth

Within a quality youth long term developmental program, differences in biological and developmental age of youth must be considered. Key measures of developmental maturation must be incorporated into the strength and conditioning program. This requires a cooperative team effort among coaches, parents, youth, physical educators, and strength and conditioning professionals to safely and efficaciously train youth along the developmental continuum.

Children will be at various points along the developmental continuum, even children of the same biological age, and those that excel at an early age need to be diversified to minimize overuse and burnout and those are considered “late bloomers” must be encouraged to continually improve. This will maximize the number of youth that are proficient in movement skills and can make their own choice to be active in sports and physical activity.

The environment in which training occurs needs to be proactive: fundamental motor skill development must be taught, coached, and assessed; positive feedback must continually and honestly be provided to youth so that skill acquisition and the positive benefits of strength and conditioning are always reinforced, and never should children be given exercise as punishment.

Strength coaches must focus on developing coaching cues for excellent lifting technique (and never sacrifice technique for increased resistance). Youth athletes must not be trained past the point of physiological benefit (e.g., making athletes vomit is not an appropriate measure of intensity).  The optimal balance of challenge and success leads to youth embracing the benefits of strength and conditioning programs (and sports programs too).

Resistance Training and LTAD

Resistance training for youth is safe and efficacious so long as important NSCA guidelines are followed. For example, participants must be able to listen to and follow directions, there must be quality supervision at all times, and exercise progressions must be developmentally appropriate. The focus of the prepubescent resistance training program is on the development of healthy habits of safe resistance training and the focus on technical performance (technique) over amount of resistance lifted.

Exercise technique is developed through body weight exercise, dowels, and light (2-3kg) medicine balls. Some youngsters that are very overweight or obese will need to use light weights before body weight, as their body weight is a significant challenge. Developmental progressions for a variety of strength and power exercises should be taught. Beginning resistance training is not sport-specific, but designed to develop health-fitness and skills-fitness attributes, which matches the philosophy of the long term development model.

What Can You Do?

NSCA-certified strength and conditioning professionals are uniquely qualified to provide properly supervised, developmentally appropriate strength and conditioning programs for youth of all ages and abilities. By following the guidelines listed in the NSCA Position Statement on youth resistance training and adapting an LTAD-type model to the specific youngster or team, you will provide a healthy, positive strength and conditioning experience that will benefit youth dually as exercise enthusiasts and athletes.

Multidisciplinary, longitudinal research is needed on LTAD, physical literacy, windows of opportunity, assessments, and dose response of strength and conditioning programs at various developmental stages. Furthermore, strength and conditioning programs should be evaluated based on whether they enhance performance for only the short-term or whether they promote long-term elite athletic development. Remember, the work you do to promote quality strength and conditioning programs for youth will have long-term performance implications.

About the Author

Rick Howard is a founding member of the NSCA Youth SIG, Immediate-Past Chair of the NSCA Youth SIG, and the Mid-Atlantic Region Coordinator for the NSCA State Provincial Director Program. Howard also serves on the NSCA Membership Committee.